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越南音乐 越南乐器
越南文化长期受中国影响,早在汉朝就受到中国的统治,长达1,000年之久,直到唐朝末期才成为独立的国家,由于受到长期中国的统治影响,音乐的形式、乐器、格律更几乎都是以中国音乐为本,此外在长期由红河三角洲南迁的过程中,同样吸收了许多印度教的音乐精华。但到了明朝又成为中国的藩属,应朝的宫廷音乐与宗教音乐为模板,到了16世纪后半期,因为宫廷音乐的衰微,至使上流社会流行的小型室内乐传到民间,出现了笛子、月琴、柳琴、独弦琴、筝、琵琶等乐器的流传民间。

16世纪末,政治造成南北分裂,音乐也分成南北两派各自发展,南方的艺术音乐,1宫廷音乐室内音乐为主,北方对戏剧音乐有进一步的发展。19世纪初,越南成为法国殖民地,从而受到欧洲的影响,本土音乐以北方民间音乐最为流行。越南南北音乐不同,主要是音阶的差异,北方的音阶与中国类似,sol-la-do-re-mi 曲调怪明快, 南方则为do-re-fa-sol-ti, 曲调婉约


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越南的音乐
越南的音乐以合奏音乐为主,不论是宫廷的合奏乐和戏剧的合奏音乐,都模仿自中国,乐器的合奏有所谓的5绝,既是五种乐器:筝、胡琴、月琴、琵琶、3弦的合奏音乐,戏剧的合奏乐器与中国的京剧乐器大同小异,是下面是典型的合奏乐曲,(V-1, 流水金线春风龙虎,是19世纪起在节日演奏的什锦歌,月琴、胡琴、扬琴、筝、琵琶、笛、加上鼓类的乐器合奏。)

乐器
越南因为少数民族众多,因此民族乐器数量繁多,这些乐器有些10分特别,算是全世界独一无二,下面就分别介绍一些特别的乐器:

 

Vietnamese music has had a rather long history. Since ancient times, the Vietnamese have had a strong inclination for music. For them, music is considered to be an essential need; therefore, numerous musical instruments and genres intended for various purposes have been developed.


DAN BAU 独弦琴 (V-2, 黑马之歌)



The dan bau is one-string zither native to Vietnam. It is constructed of a long narrow sound box, with a tall curved stem made from water buffalo horn inserted at one end. The single string runs between the sound box and a small wooden gourd attached to the stem. The stem is bent to change the pitch of the string. The player touches the string lightly with the heel of the hand at harmonic-producing nodal points while plucking with the fingers. This produces the dan bau characteristic high clear sound.

Khac Chi, as one of his innovations to the dan bau, has added frets to the instrument's already complex array of pitch production mechanisms. As the sound box of the dan bau is very narrow, it is not a loud instrument, and was traditionally used in more intimate environments. In recent years an electronic version has been introduced to be played in ensemble and large concert. The bass bau was adapted from the dan bau to provide a musical range equivalent to that of a bass guitar. It is simply an electric dan bau with a very thick string on it.


K'NI


The k'ni is a special form of stick fiddle found only in Vietnam. It was developed from the one-string "violin" of some ethnic groups (Bahnar, Gia Rai, E De, Xe Dang, Pako, and Hre) who live in the Truong Son-Tay Nguyen region in the south central highlands of Vietnam. The modern k'ni has two strings. The player sits, holding the instrument between both legs.

The k'ni does not have a resonating chamber or sound box. Rather, the strings are attached by silk cords to a small fish's scale or plastic resonating disc that is held in the player's mouth. The player's acts as the resonating chamber, and precise movements of the lips and tongue create a broad range of tonal colors and emotional expression, giving the k'ni its unique sound. Thus, the sounds are altered, almost evoking human pronunciation. Those who are familiar with the sounds of the k'ni and who understand the vernacular may catch the message of the tune; this is why people say that the k'ni sings. Due to this characteristic, the k'ni has become an instrument used mainly by young men to express their feelings to their girlfriends.



K'LONGPUT 手拍式的竹管乐器 (V-6, 春天将来到)



The k'longput is another instrument unique to Vietnam. It is made from a series of large bamboo pipes of varying lengths; each closed at one end or open both ends. The pipes are placed on their sides with the open ends facing the musician, who has no direct contact with the instrument. Instead, the player cups both hands and claps quietly in front of the open ends of the pipes, forcing air down the pipes to produce low resonant sounds.

According to a legend, this instrument is the residence of Mother Rice (goddess). Therefore, it is closely associated with agricultural production, being played exclusively by women on the field and at specific festivities, such as eating new rice, closing the rice storage house, welcoming the New Year, etc?The k'longput is native to the Bahnar people of the central highlands, who are said to have created it after hearing the wind blowing into the opening of bamboo in the forest.

 




SAO BOP


Sao bop are bamboo flutes played with "turkey-baster-style" air bulbs so that one player can play several flutes just by squeezing the bulbs-end which held in player's hands, under the arms and between player's head and shoulders. Each flute can be produced three-difference pitch by changing air pressure.

Sao bop is invented and made by Khac Chi, he also named it "squeezing-bamboo flutes".


SAO BA NGUOI


Sao ba nguoi is a novelty instrument (pictured on front cover of the CD "spirit of Vietnam - see recording), a very long bamboo flute that allows three players to play on it at once.

Khac Chi adapted this instrument from the traditional flute for two players.


T'RUNG 木琴 ( V-7, 归来,高音与低音木琴的合奏音乐)



T'rung is a suspended bamboo xylophone which closely associated with the spiritual life of the Bahnar, TSedan, Giarai, Ede and other ethnic minority people in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. The original instruments were simply made, using a series of bamboo pipes struck with small sticks. There are three types of T'rung: high, medium and bass t'rung. It has been largely improved, The modern t'rung has three rows of pipes spanning three full octaves (about 48 tubes) and is fully chromatic.


DINHPA
The dinh pa found in the south central highland regions of Vietnam. It is made from a number of large bamboo tubes fastened in two rows and stood upright. It is played by striking the top ends of the pipes with a padded stick, although originally the open hand was used.

The bass dinh pa is simply a much larger version of the dinh pa.



BANG BU


Bang bu are Vietnamese stamping tubes that are usually played in pairs. They are made of large bamboo pipes open on one end, which are struck on the ground to produce a percussive sound. The length and size of the pipe determine the pitch. Bang bu is the Thai language name and is popular among the Thai, La Ha, Mang, Kh'mu in Northwest Vietnam Khac Chi adapted Bang bu played by feet, so that the player can play other instrument during stamping the pedals that connected to the pipes.




NGUYET月琴



Nguyet also known as dan kim in Southern Vietnam is a two-string long-neck lute with substantially raised frets and a moon-shaped body. Fretted pentatonic, other pitches, subtle ornamentation's and nuances are achieved by pressing the string towards the neck with varying pressures.

The nguyet appeared in Vietnam in the 11th century. It has maintained a important position in the music tradition of the Kinh people and used widely in folk, court and academic music.


TRANH16弦筝


Tranh is a sixteen-string member of the Asian long zither family. It is a very subtle and responsive instrument due to being strung with very light metal strings. The tranh is almost identical to the zheng of Southern China.